# PHYSICS A - L

**Academic Year 2016/2017**- 1° Year

**Teaching Staff:**

**Francesco Ruffino**

**Credit Value:**6

**Scientific field:**FIS/07 - Applied physics

**Taught classes:**42 hours

**Term / Semester:**2°

## Learning Objectives

Basic principles and concepts about particle, particles system, rigid body and fluids kinematic and dynamic. Basic principles and concepts about elastic and non-elastic waves. Basic principles and concepts about thermodynamics. Basic principles and concepts about electrostatic, magnetism, electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves. Basic principles and concepts about optics.

## Detailed Course Content

**1) Measurements and uncertainties**

Models, theories, laws-Measurements and uncertainties-Units of measuremets, samples and the International systems of measures-Conversions of the measurement units-Dimensionality calculus

**2) Motion description: kinematics in one dimension**

Systems of reference and displacement-Mean velocity-Instantaneous velocity-Acceleration-Motion with constant acceleration-Falling objects-Graphical analyses of the linear motion

**3) Kinematics in two dimensions; Vectors**

Vectors and scalars-Sum of vectors: graphic method-Substraction of vectors and multiplication of vector with a scalar-Sum of vectors by components-Bullet motion-Relative velocity

**4) Motion and forces: dynamics**

Force-Newton’s first law-Mass-Newton’s second law-Newton’s third law-Weight: the gravitational force and the normal force-Applications involving friction: inclined plans

**5) Circular motion; Gravitation**

Kinematics of the uniform circular motion-Dynamics of the uniform circular motion-Newton’s law of the gravitation-Gravitation near the Earth surface-Kepler’s laws

**6) Work and energy**

Work by a constant force-Work by a non-constant force-Kinetic energy and the work principle-Potential energy-Conservative and non-conservative forces-Conservation of the mechanical energy-Other types of energy: energy transformation and the energy conservation principle-Energy conservation principle involving friction

**7) Impulse**

Relation impulse-force-Impulse conservation-Collisions and impulse-energy and impulse conservation in collisions-Elastic collisions in one dimension-Inelastic collisions-Collisions in two and three dimensions-Center of mass

**8) Rotatory motion**

Angular quantities-Kinematic equations for the uniform accelerate rotatory motion-Rolling motion-Torque-Rotational dynamics: torque and inertial moment-Rotationale kinetic energy-Conservation of the angular momentum-Vectorial nature of the angular quantities

**9) Static; Elasticity**

Static: equilibrium between forces-Equilibrium conditions-Elasticity: Hooke’s law

**10) Fluids**

Density-Pression-Atmospheric and relative pression-Pascal principle-Pression measurements: manometer and barometer-Archimede’s principle-Motion of fluids: flow and continuity equation- Bernoulli equation-Application of the Bernoulli principle

**11) Vibrations and waves**

Armonic motion-Energy in the armonic oscillator-Period and sinusoidal nature of the armonic motion-Pendulum-Damped armonic motion-Forced vibrations; resonance-Undulatory motion-Transversal and longitudinal waves-Energy carried by waves-Waves reflection and interference-Stationary waves; resonance

**12) Sound**

Properties of the sound-Sound intensity: decibel-Sound sorces: vibrating strings and air columns- Sound waves interference-Doppler effect

**13) Temperature and kinetic theory**

Atomic theory of matter-Temperature and thermomethers-Thermic equilibrium and zero principle of the thermodynamic-Thermic dilatation-Anomalous water behaviour under 4 °C-Gases laws and absolute temperature-Ideal gas law-Ideal gas law and the molecules: the Avogadro number-Kinetic theory and the molecular interpretation of the temperature-Distribution of the molecular velocities-Real gases and phase transformation-Vapour tension

**14) Heat**

Heat and energy transfer-Distinction between temperature, heat, and internal energy-Internal energy of an ideal gas-Specific heat and calorimetry-latent heat-Heat transmission: conduction, convection, irradiation

**15) Principles of the thermodynamics**

Thermodynamic’s first principle-Applications of the first principle-Thermodynamic’s second principlea-Thermic machines-Entropy and the second principle-From order to disorder;unavailable energy-Statistic interpretation of the entropy

**16) Electric charge and field**

Static electricity; conservation of the electric charge-The electric charge in the atom-Dielectrics and conductors-The induced charge; the electroscope-Coulomb law-electric field-Field lines-Electric fields and conductors

**17) Electrical potential and energy; capacitance**

Electric potential and differences of potential-Relation between electrical potential and field-equipotential lines-Electronvolt as measurement unit for the energy-Eletrical potential due to puntiform charges-Electrical dipoles-Capacitance-Dielectrics-Charge storage

**18) Electrical currents**

The battery-The current-Ohm’s law: the resistance-Resistivity-Electrical power-AC current- Microscopic aspects of the electrical current

**19) DC circuits**

Parallels and series of resistances-Electromotive force-Kirchhoff’s laws-Parallels and series of Electromotive; Charging a battery-Circuits with parallels or series of capacitances-Circuits with a resistance and a capacitance-DC Ammeters and Amperometri e voltmeters

**20) Magnetism**

Magnets and magnetic fields-electric currents as sources of magnetic fields-Force applied by a magnetic filed on an electric current; Definition of B-Force applied by a magnetic field on a electric charge in motion-Magnetic field by a linear thread-Force between parallel threads-Ampere and Coulomb unity measurements definitions-Ampere’s law-Torque on a coil travelled by a current; magnetic torque-Applications: galvanometers, motors-Mass spectrometer-Ferromagnetism-Elettromagnets e solenoids-magnetic fields in matter; hysteresis

**21) Electromagnetic induction and the Faraday’s law; AC circuits**

Inducted electromotive force-Faraday’s law;Lenz’s law- Inducted electromotive force in a conductor in motion-Relation between the variation of the magnetic flux and the electrical field-Electric generators-Parasitical currents-Transformators; electric energy transfer-Inductance-Energy in a magnetic field-LR circuits-AC circuits; impedence-AC RLC circuits-Resonance in AC circuits; oscillators

**22) Electromagnetic waves**

Relation between variable electric fields and magnetic fields: Maxwell equations- Fourth Maxwell’s equation; the displacement current-Electromagnetic waves production-Calculus of the velocity of the electromagnetic waves-Light as an electromagnetic wave; the electromagnetic spectrum-Measurement of the light velocity-Electromagnetic waves energy

**23) The light: geometric optics**

The light modeled as beams-Reflection; images formation on a plane mirror-Images formation on spherical mirrors-Refractive index-Refraction: Snell’s law-Internal total reflection-Thin lens; rays diagrams-The lens equation

**24) Waves nature of the light**

Huygens principle and diffraction-Huygens principle and refraction; Interference; Young experiments-Visible spectrum and dispersion-Diffraction from a split-Diffractive grating-The spectrometer and the spectroscopy-Polarization

**25) Optical instruments**

The human eyes-Magnifying lens-Telescope-Microscope-Lens and mirrors aberrations-Resolution limits: Rayleigh criterion-Telescope and microscope resolution-Diffraction of X rays

## Textbook Information

__Theory:__

1) Raymond A. Serway, John W. Jewett, “Principi di Fisica (quinta edizione)”, EDISES

2) Douglas C. Giancoli, “Fisica-Principi e Applicazioni” (Edizione italiana a cura di Paolo Cavatorta e Lanfranco Cicala), edizioni “Casa Editrice Ambrosiana”

3) F. Borsa, A. Lascialfari, “Principi di Fisica-per indirizzo biomedico e farmaceutico”, EDISES

__Exercises__:

1) John R. Gordon, Ralph W. McGrew, Raymond R. Serway, John W. Jewett, “Esercizi di Fisica-guida ragionata alla soluzione”, EDISES

2) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikibooks/it/4/4b/Esercizi_di_fisica_con_soluzioni.pdf; http://www60.jimdo.com/app/s80e7ac8b55e77c3c/p6a5b5a2aca6b274c/