Academic Year 2020/2021 - 1° Year
Teaching Staff: Rosaria ACQUAVIVA
Credit Value: 7
Scientific field: BIO/15 - Pharmaceutical biology
Taught classes: 49 hours
Term / Semester:

Learning Objectives

Knowledge and understanding: the course provides the tools to describe the fundamental biological structures and processes of the cell and living organisms using appropriate scientific terminology;

Ability to apply knowledge and understanding: the student acquires the skills necessary to understand the importance of variability so that we can distinguish and motivate the difference between living organisms;

Learning skills: the student becomes able to use the knowledge on the basic mechanisms that regulate living matter and living organisms (animals and plants) as a substrate for the study of other biological subjects in their Degree Course;

Making judgments: the student develops his critical ability to evaluate the implications and results of innovative discoveries in the field of cell biology and living organisms. The student is encouraged to follow innovative discoveries in cell biology and living organisms by consulting the scientific literature.

Course Structure

The course will be structured in frontal teaching with power point projection and/or short films. During the course there will be exercises and problem based learning. Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

Detailed Course Content

Principles of classification of living organisms.

Autotrophy and heterotrophy organisms.

Virus: organization, morphology, main features and the relationship with the ecosystem.

DNA virus and RNA virus. Virus-virus interactions.

Organization of the plant body.

Classification of plants.

Morphology of the animal and plant cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

Structure and function of the cell: cell wall, cell membrane structure and function, cell permeability, transport, exocytosis and endocytosis.

Growth of the cell wall. Changes in the cell wall: lignification, mineralization, gelation, pigmentation.

Intracellular structures

Chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leucoplasts: structure and functions. Pigments. Biochemical mechanism of photosynthetic light reactions, photorespiration.

Vacuolar system: origin, development and functions.

Composition of the vacuolar constituents of pharmaceutical interest.

Metabolism: primary metabolites, intermediate metabolites and secondary metabolites.

Characters tissue. Systems of tissues and their classification.

Meristematic tissues or cells.

Adult tissues or definitive: system parenchyma, tegument system, conducting system, secretory system and mechanical system.

Cell cycle. DNA replication, mitosis, meiosis, mutations in the DNA.

Heterozygous, homozygous and hemizygous, dominant and recessive characters, genotype, phenotype and karyotype, Mendel's laws.

Genetic code, transcription, translation.

Part 1: 1 CFU - 7h

The chemical composition of the cell: water, minerals, cellular macromolecules: amino acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates. Principles of classification of living organisms: virus, prokaryotes, eukaryotes and their relationship.
Autotrophy and heterotrophy organisms.

Part 2: 2 CFU - 14h

Difference between eukaryotic cell and prokaryotic cell, Structure and transport in the biological membrane. Organelles: endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi apparatus, mitochondria; Lysosomes, Peroxisomes; Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton; Core, Chromatin and chromosome

Part 3: 2 CFU - 14h

Difference between plant cell and animal cell: Plastids. Overview of Photosynthesis; photorespiration; C3 plants and C4 plants; vacuoles. Primary metabolites, intermediate metabolites and secondary metabolites. Cell wall. Growth of the cell wall. Modifications of the cell wall: lignification, cutinization, suberification, mineralization, gelification, pigmentation. Vegetable tissues: meristematic tissues; Parenchymal tissues and tegumental tissues; conducting tissues; secretory tissues and mechanical tissues.

Part 4: 2 CFU - 14h

Overview of genetics: Heterozygous, homozygous and hemizygous, dominant and recessive characters, genotype, phenotype and karyotype, Mendel's laws. Cell cycle. DNA replication, mitosis, meiosis, mutations in the DNA. Genetic code, transcription, translation.

Textbook Information

  1. Solomon, Berg, Martin -Biology- Ed. Edises
  2. D. Sadava, D.V. Hillis, H.C. Heller, M.R. Berenbaum-Biologia-Ed.Zainichelli
  3. N.L. Campbell. -Biologia- Ed. Zanichelli
  4. Solomon, Berg, Martin -Struttura e processi vitali nelle piante- Ed. Edises
  5. Poli F. - Biologia Farmaceutica - II Ed. - Pearson 2019
  6. Sadava,Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker.Biologia , Volumi 1,2,3,4 Ed. Zanichelli