Academic Year 2023/2024 - Teacher: GIUSEPPE LANZA

Expected Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and understanding: the student acquires the knowledge of the basic laws of chemistry and physics necessary to understand the origin and evolution of chemical, biochemical and biological phenomena and their applications in the pharmaceutical field.

Ability to apply knowledge and understanding: the student acquires the principles of thermodynamics and how these allow or set limits in the various energy transformations.

Learning skills: the student becomes able to apply chemical-physical models for the rationalization of experiments.

Making judgments: after consolidating the basic concepts, the student develops his critical ability in evaluating and interpreting the data that allow him to independently undertake subsequent research in the chemical-pharmaceutical sector

Ability to solve numerical problems: the theoretical bases are applied by the student both to critically evaluate possible solutions to analytical problems and to support arguments in the chemical-biological field.

Course Structure

Lectures and numerical exercises on the basic concepts and on the many and applications in the chemical-pharmaceutical field.

If lectures are given in a mixed or remote way, some changes may be introduced from what has been stated above, in order to comply with the program and visaged and reported in the syllabus.

Required Prerequisites

It is necessary to have a preparation in mathematic and physics. It is recommended to have passed all the chemistry exams of the first year.

Attendance of Lessons

Attendance of lessons is required in accordance with the regulation of the CdS as reported in the link:

Detailed Course Content


The first law of thermodynamics. Work and Heat. State functions: internal energy, enthalpy, heat capacity at constant pressure and volume. Thermodynamic cycles, reversible and irreversible processes. Thermochemistry. Standard enthalpy, enthalpy of reaction, enthalpies of formation, bond energy endothermic and exothermic processes The Hess's law.

Experimental techniques: calorimetry, TGA, DTA, DSC and ITC. Energetic metabolism, caloric value of food, and respiratory quotient.

The second principle of thermodynamics. Entropy and spontaneous processes. Entropy changes with temperature and pressure and in the phase transitions.

The third principle of thermodynamics. Absolute entropy. Gibbs free energy. Gibbs energy dependence on pressure and temperature.

Chemical equilibrium. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants. Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Effect of temperature on equilibrium. Efficiency and performance of biochemical cycles.


Conductivity of electrolyte solutions, conductometry and conductometric titrations. Electrodic potentials, half-cells, batteries, Nernst equation. Standard reduction potentials and its applications in chemistry and biochemistry. Electrolysis.


Rates of chemical reactions, reaction order. Integrated form of the kinetic equations of zero, first and second order. Parallel-competitive reactions and consecutive reactions. Pharmacokinetics: intravenous and oral administration. Reaction mechanisms and reaction order: the model of the activated complex. Catalytic and autocatalytic processes, propagation of an epidemic.Effect of temperature on reaction rate: Arrhenius equation.


Brief introduction to quantum mechanics. Description of the different atomic motions and related spectroscopic techniques. Vibrational spectroscopies: infrared, Raman and resonant-Raman. Electron spectroscopy, molecular orbitals, chromophores. Photophysical and photochemical processes. Photosynthesis. Laser stimulated emission.

Textbook Information

1. Lecture notes are available.

2. Engel T., Reid P., "Chimica Fisica" PICCIN.

3. G.K. Vemulapalli “Chimica Fisica” Ed. EDISES

3. P.W. Atkins, J. De Paula "Chimica Fisica Biologica" Volume 1, Ed. Zanichelli

5. A Gambi "Esercizi di chimica fisica" Ed. Zanichelli

Course Planning

 SubjectsText References
1Primo principio della termodinamica e sue applicazioni.vedi TERMODINAMICA su studium; Testo 2, Capitoli 3 e 4
2Secondo principio della termodinamica e sue applicazioni. vedi TERMODINAMICA su studium; Testo 2, Capitolo 5
3Terzo principio della termodinamica e sue applicazioni. vedi TERMODINAMICA su studium; Testo 2, Capitoli 6-8
4Energia libera di Gibbs ed equilibrio chimicovedi TERMODINAMICA su studium Testo 2, Capitolo 10
5Conducibilità di soluzioni di elettroliti e sue applicazioni.vedi ELETTROCHIMICA su Studium; Testo 2, Capitolo 11
6Potenziometria, equazione di Nernst e loro applicazioni.vedi ELETTROCHIMICA su Studium; Testo 2, Capitolo 11
7Velocità delle reazioni chimiche e ordine di reazione.vedi CINETICA su Studium; Testo 2, Capitoli 24 e 25
8Farmacocineticavedi CINETICA su Studium
9Catalisi ed autocatalisivedi CINETICA su Studium; Testo 3, Capitolo 8
10Equazione di Arrhenius e sue applicazioni.vedi CINETICA su Studium; Testo 2, Capitoli 24 e 25
11Proprietà della luce.vedi SPETTROSCOPIA su Studium; Testo 2 Capitolo 16
12Moti vibrazionali e spettroscopie IR e Ramanvedi SPETTROSCOPIA su Studium; Testo 2 Capitolo 16
13Spettroscopia elettronica UV-Visvedi SPETTROSCOPIA su Studium; Testo 2 Capitoli 20 e 21
14Processi fotofisici e fotochimici.vedi SPETTROSCOPIA su Studium; Testo 2 Capitolo 21
15Laser funzionamento e applicazioni.vedi SPETTROSCOPIA su Studium; Testo 2 Capitolo 21

Learning Assessment

Learning Assessment Procedures

Exam dates are published on the site
The written test requires the resolution of three numerical exercises on the following topics:
chemical kinetics;
first law of thermodynamics;
second law of thermodynamics;
Verification of learning can also be carried out electronically, if the conditions require it.

Examples of frequently asked questions and / or exercises

Determine the rate constant of the 1st order reaction of hydrolysis of sucrose in aqueous solution, catalyzed by acids,

C12H22O11  +  H2O  -->   C6H12O6  +  C6H12O6

Sucrose                         Glucose     Fructose

knowing that the initial concentration is 0.06 M and that after 3 minutes it is equal to 0.052 M.

Also, calculate the initial reaction rate and after 3 minutes.


The heat produced by a person's metabolism is 100 kcal/hour. If the body were an isolated system, how much would the temperature increase after two hours? How many grams of glucose equals the heat released? If we assume that the only form of cooling of the body is the vaporization of the water produced by sweating, how many grams of water would have to evaporate to keep the body temperature constant.

Assume that the person's mass is 75 kg and his heat capacity is 1 kcal/kg. The DHevaporation of water is 540 kcal/kg.



Calculate the standard free energy change and the equilibrium constant K for the reaction:

N2(g) + O2(g) + Cl2(g) = 2NOCl(g)
from the following data, referred to 298 K:
formazione                 S°

              kcal/mol             cal/(mol×K)

N2(g)               0                        45.8
2(g)               0                        49.0
2(g)              0                        53.3
(g)     +12.6                     63.0
In which direction the chemical reaction will proceed when all chemical species have unit partial pressure.


Calculate the standard free energy variation and the equilibrium constant, at 25°C, of the reaction:

2 Cr3+ + 3 Cu(s) = 2 Cr(s) + 3 Cu2+

knowing that E°Cu2+/Cu= 0.34 V and E°Cr3+/Cr= -0.74 V.

In which direction the chemical reaction will proceed when all chemical species have an activity of one.

Schematize an experimental apparatus for realizing a battery with unitary activity chemical species by indicating the polarity in flow of the electrons in the external circuit and the flow of the charges of the salt bridge.