Academic Year 2023/2024 - Teacher: Alberto TORRISI

Expected Learning Outcomes

At the end of the course, the student should be able to calculate the chemical composition of an aqueous solution in presence of Broensted acid-base equilibria and/or complexation equilibria and/or precipitation-solubility equilibria.

Course Structure

Lectures and numerical exercices.

Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it.

Required Prerequisites

Basic knowledges of mathematics and chemistry

Detailed Course Content

Introduction - Chemical equilibrium – Equilibrium constant – Factors affecting the equilibrium constant; composition, solvent, temperature. Systematic treatment of equilibrium. Mass, charge and proton balances.

Acid-base equilibria – Broensted and Lewis theories – Conjugate acid-base pair – Strength of acids and bases – Water ionic product and pH – Acidity and neutrality of an aqueous solution  -  Strong acids or strong bases aqueous solution; rigorous and approximate treatments; criteria and validity limits – Weak monoprotic acids  or weak monoacid bases aqueous solution; dissociation degree; rigorous and approximate treatments; criteria and limits of validity – Aqueous solution containing one conjugate polyprotic acid or one polyacid base; rigorous and approximate treatments - Composition vs. pH expression;  distribution plot  - Aqueous solution containing a conjugate acid-base pair; rigorous and approximate treatments; buffers; buffer capability – Aqueous solution containing a conjugate polyprotic acid - polyacid base pair –– Ampholytes -  Aqueous solution containing mixture of acids and bases (strong-strong, weak-strong, strong-weak, weak-weak); rigorous and approximate treatments.

Complex formation equilibria –  monodentate and polydentate ligands, chelate effect,  partial formation , global formation and conditional formation constants, pH influence.

Precipitation equilibria - Solubility and solubility product -  Selective precipitation, gravimetry - Influence of Broensted and Lewis acid-base interaction on the solubility of salts containing monovalent and polyvalent  cations and anions.

Activity - Relationship between activity and concentration – Thermodynamic and stoichiometric constants – Ionic strength – Short outline of Debye Hückel theory and its practical application on ionic equilibrium.

Volumetric methods; generality, titration graphs, end-point indicators.

  • Acid-base titrations; strong acid, strong base, weak acid, weak base, polyprotic acid, polyacid base - Titration criteria -  Acid-base indicators - Titration error.
  • EDTA complexation titrations; pH choice, auxiliary complexing agents, indicators, titration error – Liebig titration.
  • Precipitation titration: generality - Silver nitrate as precipitation agent - Visualization of titration end-point by Möhr, Volhardt and Fajans methods - Titration error.

Textbook Information

- Daniel Harris - Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 9th edition, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 2016

- Douglas A. Skoog, Donald M. West, F. James Holler, Stanley H. Crouch - Foundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 9th edition, Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, 2014

- Detailed texts of the lessons made available on Studium also containing numerous exam problems carried out.

Course Planning

 SubjectsText References
1Equilibri acido-base di Broensted e relative titolazioniPDF delle lezioni su Studium
2Equilibri di solubilità e di precipitazione e titolazioni per precitazionePDF delle lezioni su Studium
3Equilibri di complessazione e relative titolazioniPDF delle lezioni su Studium
4Forza ionica e sua influenza sulle costanti di equilibrioPDF delle lezioni su Studium

Learning Assessment

Learning Assessment Procedures

Written test, which will act as admission to the oral examination, based on the topics covered during the course and carried out in the exercises available on Studium.

Oral examination based on questions formulated by the commission mainly on the topics considered essential but also on the remaining part of the program.

Verification of learning can also be carried out online, if the conditions require it.

Examples of frequently asked questions and / or exercises

Systematic treatment of an aqueous solution of a weak monoprotic acid at various dilutions.

Systematic treatment of an aqueous solution of a weak diprotic acid at various dilutions.

Systematic treatment of an aqueous solution containing an ampholyte.

Criteria for preparing a buffer solution.

Calculation of pH when titrating a weak mono- and bifunctional weak component with a strong component.

Choice of optimal conditions for titration of a cation with EDTA.

Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the factors that influence the solubility of a slightly soluble salt.